Some scientists say that excellence initiatives are creating a two-tier system. How will you maintain research and teaching across France? We have similarly selected eight. There is not that much disparity in opportunities among the universities. They have other opportunities beyond Idex. Ninety per cent of French universities have received some form of support from the Investments for the Future programme.
If we want world-class research champions, we need to concentrate resources on those places where the research is best. Similarly, I think the Investments for the Future programme, because it rewards the best, will lift the entire French system of research and higher education, not just the winners.
France is a very special case. Just after the Second World War, we created agencies separate from the universities to do basic research. Now, even these countries have abandoned this model. In the United States, the vast majority of research operators are universities. That is not yet the case in France, but it is our goal.
The research organizations are expected to become more like real funding agencies, serving the universities and research institutions. Many leading scientists complain that lab funding by the national research organizations is falling. How would you rectify this situation?
In , research spending as a percentage of gross domestic product reached 2. The best French research teams have enjoyed an unprecedented increase in funding, but these funds have not necessarily passed through the main research agencies. Scientists say that you have increased bureaucracy in an already-complex research landscape. How would you streamline this?
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It is true that new structures have emerged. Many need to be consolidated, and others need to be simplified or reduced. The landscape of French research and higher education is being restructured. It is like a major construction site where, as the project advances, the scaffolding is taken down, the tarpaulin is taken off and the new building appears.
That is how it will be for the universities and research in France. I want to intensify research to develop safer nuclear generators, but also boost research and development into alternative energy sources. I want to manage the inevitable transition towards alternative energies that will take place in France. In the meantime, it would be stupid and counterproductive to deprive France of its valuable nuclear-energy assets. The issue was widely debated in parliament during the revision of the bioethics laws in The current situation, in which embryo research is prohibited but there are dispensations for work that could lead to major therapeutic progress and where alternatives are not available, is strictly equivalent from a scientific point of view to what the Socialists propose.
During the debate on bioethics, the French overwhelmingly expressed their commitment to the sanctity of life from its beginning. The national representation therefore ruled that the existing system should be maintained. French universities have experienced huge changes under President Sarkozy. Would you continue or change his programme?
The law on university autonomy must be profoundly reformed, but there will be no going back on the principle of autonomy. However, when responsibilities are transferred from the state to the universities, there needs to be a comparable transfer of resources. I want the university-funding mechanisms to be clarified, and for these not to increase disparities, in particular by cutting back on teaching or the salaries of lecturers and full-time researchers. The reforms will be discussed within a framework law on higher education and research at the end of , preceded this year by a national consultation.
This year and last, the overall funding levels for the national research organizations and the National Research Agency fell. I will rebalance core lab funding — the permanent support that lets teams think in the medium and long term — with project funding. I will refocus the National Research Agency [the main source of project funding] on national priorities, emerging themes and interdisciplinary projects.
I will order a financial audit of the plans launched by the previous government. Other countries think French research is being inundated with money. How will you maintain research quality across France? The Investments for the Future programme has worsened disparities between universities. I will not reconsider decisions that have been made but, after the audit, I will demand that unallocated credits be used to correct geographical disparities, to ensure that these do not develop into scientific and university deserts.
I will push to replace competition between universities with cooperation. Would you prioritize research spending? I will make higher education and research a priority, because the major problem facing France is to prepare for the future.
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I will make youth the core of my programme, giving priority to education from early childhood through to university. I will favour basic research, which has been sacrificed these past few years, paying particular attention to the life sciences, where funding is far below the international average, and environmental sciences. France is lucky to have its large national research organizations alongside the universities. These organizations must recover their role of steering the national research effort, and of supporting research carried out in the universities.
What will be your policies on nuclear and other energy technologies? We get off of school at Edouard se lamente tout le temps qu'il a pas assez d'argent.
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